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Sodobni vojaški izzivi - leto 2019

DOI:10.33179/BSV.99.SVI.11.CMC.21.1.0
Liliana Brožič
Uvodnik: VOJAŠKO ZNANJE V SODOBNEM VARNOSTNEM OKOLJU

DOI:10.33179/BSV.99.SVI.11.CMC.21.1.00.
Liliana Brožič
EDITORIAL: MILITARY KNOWLEDGE IN A CONTEMPORARY SECURITY SETTING

DOI:10.33179/BSV.99.SVI.11.SMC.21.1.1.
Franjo Lipovec
SLOVENSKA VOJSKA DO LETA 2025 IN NAPREJ
SLOVENIAN ARMED FORCES UP TO 2025 AND BEYOND

V prispevku smo analizirali trenutno stanje Slovenske vojske, ugotavljali slabosti in prednosti ter ponudili priporočila za organiziranost in delovanje Slovenske vojske. Ugotavljali smo tudi, ali njeno preoblikovanje sledi transformacijskim procesom v zavezništvu. Uporabili smo Natovo metodologijo DOTMLPF-I in na podlagi analize določili njena šibkejša področja. Izpostavili smo področje kadra in financ, ki ju je treba za učinkovito izvajanje izboljšati. Z analizo razvoja vojaških organizacij v prihodnosti in pregleda Natovih strateških konceptov smo ugotovili, da mora Slovenska vojska za uspešno delovanje v prihodnosti slediti transformacijskim imperativom zavezništva v sedanjosti. V nadaljevanju smo analizirali zahteve, ki bodo pred Slovensko vojsko v prihodnosti, in opisali nekatere kombinirane nekonvencionalne grožnje. Ob koncu smo predstavili tudi priporočila za delovanje Slovenske vojske v prihodnosti, in sicer konsolidacijo sistema, pripravo vizije, povezovanje, posodobitev in fleksibilno strukturo enot ter finančno stabilnost in vzdržnost. Kot temeljno ugotovitev prispevka izpostavljamo, da je Slovensko vojsko treba do leta 2025 in naprej oblikovati kot majhno, vendar še vedno dovolj močno vojaško silo, ki lahko s trajnostnimi viri zagotavlja visoko usposobljene in izurjene združene sile, povezljive z vojskami držav zaveznic Nata.
Ključne besede: Slovenska vojska, Nato, DOTMLPF-I, vojskovanje prihodnosti, varnostno okolje.

The paper provides an analysis of the current situation in the Slovenian Armed Forces, identifies weaknesses and advantages, and offers recommendations for the organization and functioning of the Slovenian Armed Forces. We have also examined whether its transformation follows the transformational processes in the Alliance. NATO's DOTMLPF-I methodology and an analysis have been used to determine the weaker areas. We have particularly highlighted the field of personnel and finances that need to be improved in order to ensure a more effective implementation. By analyzing the development of military organizations in the future and by reviewing NATO's strategic concepts, we have established that in order to successfully function in the future, the Slovenian Armed Forces must follow the transformational imperatives of the Alliance today. Furthermore, we have analyzed the requirements lying ahead the Slovenian Armed Forces in the future and described some of the combined unconventional threats. At the end, we have also presented the recommendations for the operation of the Slovenian Armed Forces in the future, namely system consolidation, preparation of a vision, integration, modernization and flexible structure of units as well as financial stability and sustainability. As a fundamental finding of the article, we emphasize the fact that, by 2025 and beyond, the Slovenian Armed Forces should be shaped as a small but still sufficiently strong military force, which by using sustainable resources can provide highly qualified and trained joint forces that are interoperable with the armed forces of other NATO Allies.
Keywords: Slovenian Armed Forces, NATO, DOTMLPF-I, warfare of the future, security environment.

DOI:10.33179/BSV.99.SVI.11.SMC.21.1.2.
Aleksander Vidergar
VLOGA SLOVENSKE VOJSKE PRI URESNIČEVANJU ZUNANJEPOLITIČNIH INTERESOV IN CILJEV REPUBLIKE SLOVENIJE
THE ROLE OF THE SLOVENIAN ARMED FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF FOREIGN POLICY INTERESTS AND GOALS OF THE REPUBLIC OF SLOVENIA


Države svoje strateške nacionalne interese uresničujejo z zunanjo politiko. Tako kot druge države se tudi Slovenija pri uresničevanju svojih zunanjepolitičnih interesov in ciljev spoprijema z interesi ter cilji drugih držav, pri čemer se je treba zavedati, da ima pri tem svojo vlogo tudi Slovenska vojska. Pri tem ne govorimo o vojaški sili, temveč o tem, kako lahko Slovenska vojska pomaga pri uveljavljanju interesov države v mednarodni skupnosti. Ena izmed možnosti so mednarodne operacije in misije (MOM). Pri njih gre predvsem za zagotavljanje varnosti zunaj države, kar je v tem času še toliko pomembnejše zaradi sodobnih komunikacij in predvsem migracij po vsem svetu. Sodelovanje v MOM krepi ugled in izboljšuje mednarodno podobo, položaj ter verodostojnost Republike Slovenije. Druga možnost za pomoč Slovenske vojske pri zagotavljanju zunanjepolitičnih interesov in ciljev je diplomacija, ki je orodje zunanje politike. S članstvom Slovenije v mednarodnih organizacijah je predvsem pri največjih, in sicer OZN, Natu, EU ter OVSE, država spoznala, da bo delo slovenskih predstavništev v teh organizacijah brez vojaških strokovnjakov in diplomatov omejeno, saj civilni strokovnjaki ter diplomati ne morejo rešiti vseh izzivov, predvsem pa ne tistih, ki se nanašajo na vojaško stroko.
Ključne besede: Republika Slovenija, zunanjepolitični interesi in cilji, Slovenska vojska, mednarodne operacije in misije (MOM), diplomacija.

Strategic national interests of the state are realized through the process of foreign policy. In pursuing its own foreign policy interests and goals, Slovenia, just as other countries, deals with the interests and goals of other countries. In this respect, the Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF) also plays its role. Of course, we do not refer to a military force, but to the ways in which the Slovenian Armed Forces can assist in the promotion of the state’s interests in the international community. One of the options are international operations and missions (IOMs). The primary aim of IOMs is to ensure security outside of the country, which is today all the more important due to modern communications and, above all, global migrations. The participation in the IOMs strengthens the reputation and improves the international image, position and credibility of the Republic of Slovenia. Another possibility for the Slovenian Armed Forces to support Slovenia’s foreign policy interests and goals is diplomacy, which is a foreign policy tool. After Slovenia joined various international organizations, especially the largest ones (UN, NATO, EU, OSCE), the government came to realize that the work of Slovenian representations in these organizations will be curtailed if military experts and diplomats are not engaged, since civilian experts and diplomats cannot cope with all challenges, especially not the ones related to the military profession.
Republic of Slovenia, foreign policy interests and objectives, Slovenian Armed Keywords: Forces, international operations and missions, diplomacy.

DOI:10.33179/BSV.99.SVI.11.SMC.21.1.3.
Boštjan Novak
VLOGA SLOVENSKE VOJSKE OB POJAVU KOMPLEKSNE KRIZE V REPUBLIKI SLOVENIJI
THE ROLE OF THE SLOVENIAN ARMED FORCES IN THE EVENT OF A COMPLEX CRISIS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SLOVENIA


V današnjem času so krize vedno bolj kompleksne. Če obseg krize presega odzivne zmožnosti posameznih ministrstev, vladnih služb in podsistemov sistema nacionalne varnosti, govorimo o kompleksni krizi. Uspešen in učinkovit odziv nanje zahteva od nacionalnovarnostnega sistema stalno pripravljenost in usklajenost, da lahko pravočasno ukrepa in se odzove na morebitne pojave kompleksne krize. Prispevek analizira vlogo Slovenske vojske ob pojavu kompleksne krize v Republiki Sloveniji po sprejetju dopolnitev 20. člena Zakona o vladi. Temeljni namen članka je pregled usklajenosti in pristojnosti delovanja organov med kompleksno krizo s poudarkom na Slovenski vojski. Nadgrajevanje mehanizmov kriznega upravljanja in vodenja v Sloveniji je podlaga za zagotavljanje varnosti njenim prebivalcem. Občutek, da smo dobro pripravljeni na prihodnje kompleksne krize, je včasih tudi zavajajoč, saj nas izkušnje učijo ravno nasprotno. Slovenska vojska je v vlogi podpornega delovanja drugim segmentom sodelovala v vseh večjih področnih krizah v državi. Prav tako je bila udeležena pri reševanju migrantske krize, kjer je ponujala podporo pri nalogah Civilne zaščite in sodelovala pri nalogah skupaj s Policijo.
Ključne besede: Kompleksna kriza, krizno upravljanje in vodenje, Slovenska vojska.

Crises today are becoming increasingly complex. If the scale of a crisis exceeds the response capabilities of individual ministries, government services and national security subsystems, we are dealing with a complex crisis. An effective and efficient response to such crises requires permanent readiness and concerted action of the national security system, enabling it to act upon and respond to potential signs of a complex crisis in a timely manner. The paper analyses the role of the Slovenian Armed Forces on the onset of a complex crisis in the Republic of Slovenia as defined after the adoption of amendments to Article 20 of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia Act. The basic purpose of the paper is to examine the concerted action and operational competence of authorities, especially the Slovenian Armed Forces, in the event of a complex crisis. Enhancing crisis management mechanisms in Slovenia is the basis for ensuring the safety of its citizens. The feeling that we are well prepared for complex crises in the future can sometimes be misleading, since, indeed, experience suggests the opposite. By providing operational support to other segments, the Slovenian Armed Forces have participated in all major sectoral crises in the country. In addition, the Slovenian Armed Forces participated in the resolution of the migrant crisis, offering support for the tasks carried out by the Civil Protection Service and performing tasks in cooperation with the Police.
Keywords: Complex crisis, crisis management and leadership, Slovenian Armed Forces.

DOI:10.33179/BSV.99.SVI.11.SMC.21.1.4.
Bogomir Tomažič
RAZVOJ POMORSTVA SLOVENSKE VOJSKE IN URESNIČEVANJE OBRAMBNE STRATEGIJE REPUBLIKE SLOVENIJE
DEVELOPMENT OF THE SLOVENIAN ARMED FORCES MARITIME BRANCH AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SLOVENIAN DEFENCE STRATEGY


Resolucija o strategiji nacionalne varnosti Republike Slovenije kot trajni interes Republike Slovenije navaja ohranitev neodvisnosti, suverenosti in ozemeljske celovitosti države. Ta cilj se pomembno tiče tudi morja, saj teritorialno morje in notranje morske vode spadajo na območje nacionalnega teritorija Republike Slovenije, njihova obramba pa je ena izmed temeljnih nalog Slovenske vojske. Pomorstvo Slovenske vojske, ki deluje predvsem kot mornariška enota, 430. mornariški divizion, je bilo oblikovano zaradi potrebe po zagotavljanju obrambe nacionalnega akvatorija in pristanišča Koper kot strateškega objekta nacionalnega pomena. Četrt stoletja razvoja roda pomorstva Slovenske vojske je predvsem po vstopu v evro-atlantske povezave zaznamoval intenziven razvoj zmogljivosti v smeri povezljivosti za delovanje v mednarodnem okolju ob hkratnem zavedanju, da je obramba države glavna naloga Slovenske vojske. Danes je rod pomorstva del Slovenske vojske, ki je mednarodno povezljiv in s svojim delovanjem v mednarodnem okolju prispeva k mednarodni pomorski varnosti, posredno pa tako zagotavlja tudi nacionalno varnost Republike Slovenije, ki je eden izmed temeljev za delovanje države. Nadaljnji razvoj roda pomorstva je jamstvo, da bo Slovenska vojska tudi na morju zagotavljala izvajanje Obrambne strategije Republike Slovenije in prispevala k delovanju sistema nacionalne varnosti.
Ključne besede: Nacionalna varnost, pomorska varnost, Obrambna strategija Republike Slovenije, rod pomorstva Slovenske vojske.

The Resolution on the National Security Strategy of the Republic of Slovenia as a permanent vital interest of the Republic of Slovenia indicates the preservation of the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the state. To an important extent, this goal also concerns the sea, since the territorial sea and internal coastal waters belong to the national territory of the Republic of Slovenia, and their defence constitutes one of the basic tasks of the Slovenian Armed Forces. The maritime branch of the Slovenian Armed Forces, expressed mainly through the naval unit, the 430th Naval Division, was originally formed out of the need to provide the defence of national port-water area and the port of Koper as a strategic facility of national importance. The twenty-five years of the development of the maritime branch, especially the period after Slovenia joined the Euro-Atlantic structures”, were significantly marked by the intensified development of capabilities in terms of interoperability to operate in the international environment, while acknowledging that defence of the country is the Slovenian Armed Forces’ primary task. Today, the maritime branch constitutes a part of the Slovenian Armed Forces, which is internationally interoperable, contributing through its activities in the international environment to international maritime safety. In this way, it indirectly also contributes to the national security of the Republic of Slovenia as one of the basis for the functioning of a state. Further development of the maritime branch is therefore a guarantee that the Slovenian Armed Forces will also provide for the implementation of the Defence Strategy of the Republic of Slovenia at sea and contribute to the functioning of the national security system.
Keywords: National security, maritime security, Defence strategy of the Republic of Slovenia, maritime branch.

DOI:10.33179/BSV.99.SVI.11.SMC.21.1.5.
Igor Lanišnik
SODELOVANJE SLOVENSKE VOJSKE V SISTEMU HELIKOPTERSKE NUJNE MEDICINSKE POMOČI
PARTICIPATION OF THE SLOVENIAN ARMED FORCES IN THE HELICOPTER MEDICAL SERVICES SYSTEM


Namen članka je predstaviti način delovanja helikopterske enote Slovenske vojske v sistemu helikopterske nujne medicinske pomoči in dati natančen predlog nadaljnjega dela ter izpostaviti nujne spremembe ob upoštevanju evropskih meril in zahtev. V članku bomo prikazali uporabnost helikopterjev Slovenske vojske, njeno prepoznavnost kot partnerja v sistemu helikopterske nujne medicinske pomoči in dali predloge, kako oblikovati novo strukturo, ki bo bolj primerna za Slovenijo. V zaključnem delu bo predstavljen predlog vzpostavitve Sektorja za letalsko dejavnost znotraj Uprave Republike Slovenije za zaščito in reševanje. Namen predloga je izboljšati vodenje dejavnosti, ki bo omogočalo nemoteno delovanje vojske in policije pri opravljanju temeljnih nalog in obenem ponujalo možnost sodelovanja v obliki dežurne službe znotraj Uprave Republike Slovenije za zaščito in reševanje.
Ključne besede: Helikopterska nujna medicinska pomoč, Slovenska vojska.

The aim of the article is to present the functioning of the helicopter unit of the Slovenian Armed Forces within the Helicopter Medical Services System as well as to provide a detailed proposal for further work and to highlight the necessary changes, taking account of the European criteria and requirements. In the article, we will demonstrate the usefulness of the Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF) helicopters, and the SAF’s recognisability as a partner in the Helicopter Medical Services System. Additionally, we will make suggestions on how to design a new structure more suited for Slovenia. In the conclusion, a proposal for the establishment of the Aviation Division within the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief will be presented. The purpose of the proposal is to improve the way in which activities are conducted in order to enable smooth functioning of the armed forces and the police in the performance of their fundamental tasks, and at the same time offer a possibility for cooperation in the form of an on-duty service within the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief.
Keywords: Helicopter medical services system, Slovenian Armed Forces.

DOI:10.33179/BSV.99.SVI.11.SMC.21.1.6.
Viktor Potočnik
ZRAČNODESANTNE ZMOGLJIVOSTI IN SLOVENSKA VOJSKA
AIRBORNE CAPABILITIES AND SLOVENIAN ARMED FORCES


Članek se ukvarja z (ne)smiselnostjo vzdrževanja zračnodesantnih zmogljivosti v sodobnih oboroženih silah in tudi v Slovenski vojski. Zgodovinski pregled uspešnosti zračnodesantnih operacij vsekakor govori proti njihovi nadaljnji uporabi, vsaj v konfliktih visoke intenzivnosti. Kljub temu veliko držav vzdržuje zračnodesantne zmogljivosti, največje velesile celo na ravni divizij. Razlogi za to so različni − od institucionalne moči zračnodesantnih sil do elitnosti, ki jo zagotavljajo zaradi narave izbora kadra (prostovoljnost), in ne nazadnje njihove uporabnosti v nekonvencionalnih spopadih. Ugotovimo lahko, da ni enoznačnega odgovora na (ne)smiselnost zračnodesantnih sil in da ima njihova uporaba več kot samo vojaške dimenzije.
Ključne besede: Zračni desant, lahka pehota, elementi nacionalne moči.

The article discusses whether maintaining airborne capabilities in modern armed forces, including the Slovenian Armed Forces, is sensible or not. A historical overview of airborne operations speaks clearly against their further use, especially in high-intensity conflicts. Nevertheless, airborne capabilities are maintained by almost every armed force in the world, by the world's greatest superpowers even at the division level. The reasons for this vary from their institutional power to the elite status provided by the (voluntary) selection process, and their usefulness in non-conventional conflicts. It can be concluded that there is no clear answer to whether maintaining airborne forces is sensible or not, and that the use of such forces exceeds military dimensions.
Keywords: Airborne operation, light infantry, elements of national power.